I'm sure Sander will come up with lots of tips. From a tourist point of view there's the Rijks Museum, and for shopping the Bijen Korf on Dam Square. I'm sure there are other fun sites to visit, I'm not as knowledgeable of those.
I personally prefer The Hague, so if you have time to get there and one of the sea resorts in that area, it may be well worth a visit.
Lol, you are way behind mate!
The law changed last year
Cannabis is now only legal for people with a Dutch identity card. But its pretty easy to get on the streets and it is still legal to smoke a joint as a tourist, you won't be able to buy it the legal way.
OK. Next time I transfer through Schiphol, I'm going to stay a night. Habe die Sehnsucht. High time too that I check out where my great great grandfather had a coffee house. Also have to check out Arntzeniusweg, which is where my great grandmother used to live. Think that's in Watergraafsmeer, Amsterdam. Brings back memories now.